Today we have quite different economic conditions and tools for doing business than we had in the 19th century. Presumably, the tradition of management must have changed a lot since then, and the 19th-century leadership must be completely outdated by now. After all, we have big and small businesses where hundreds of people operate using computers and sometimes do not communicate with each other. The present day requires an employee to interact with most of those people at a time, take some decisions independently, and delegate responsibilities.
The 21st century entered the era where emotional intelligence dominates over general IQ for leaders. Scholars emphasized the necessity to develop EI at the college level for students to understand themselves and discover how they can build effective relationships with the others. The ability to manage our relationships is crucial for organizations where people with different characters and skills work together. The strength of a current leader is measured with their self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.
Today managers can use several leadership styles according to specifics of their team and personal preferences. Coercive style requires immediate compliance and is least common in the leadership. Democratic and authoritative styles are the most common in current corporations. The first one requires team participation and the second urges workers to move with their leader. A few managers refer to the affiliative style as they try to create an emotional bond and mutual understanding with their employees. We also observe a rising popularity of coaching among managers who promote development for their people.