Spending most of their time at school, children are usually labeled by teachers either as gifted kids or as retardates. Teachers usually classify students according to their academic achievements and the number of extracurriculars they are enrolled in. When someone comes ahead of their peers in development, it is the time to call them a gifted kid. Speaking of giftedness, however, we cannot be precise. We consider people whose IQ is higher than 130 as gifted ones, however, that definition varies across cultures. Many people realize themselves being gifted only as they grow up and discover some talents.
Looking at a gifted student, we think of how they became gifted in the first place. Presumably, notable academic achievements are stimulated by hereditary features and favorable environmental factors. Prodigies do not actually inherit their gift from some relative. They rather develop qualities that make them most successful in certain fields. Giftedness is also about motivation. Children interested in sciences or arts pay more attention to their favorite subjects. They are more inspired in these particular fields, and they naturally try harder to achieve something. But still, that explains the phenomenon of gifted people only partially.